Engineering Metrology and Measurement

By: K Duraivelu and S Karthikeyan

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Metrology and Measurement play an important role in many engineering fields, especially in the production, inspection and quality control of physical products. Accurate measurement in real time is crucial for monitoring and controlling operations in many industries. This book deals with the basic concepts of measurement, including linear, angular and form measurement. It also explores in depth the measurement of force, strain, power, vibration, fluid flow and temperature. Recent advances such as laser metrology, computer-aided inspection and machine vision are also discussed. When coupled with extensive practical experiments, the book will help students gain a solid understanding of the main concepts of this fascinating subject. Salient Features Comprehensive coverage of the syllabi pertaining to this subject of most Indian universities Incorporates end-of-chapter summaries, multiple choice questions and review questions Includes over 220 figures to complement the text Features a section on the use of statistical tools to ensure quality controlTable of Contents Foreword by Dr R Velraj Foreword by Dr V Raghavan Preface Section I: Engineering Metrology Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Measurement 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Significance of Measurement 1.3 Precision and Accuracy of Measurement 1.3.1 Factors Affecting the Accuracy of the Measurement System 1.4 Reliability of Measurement 1.5 Methods of Measurement 1.6 Important Terms in Measurement 1.7 Standards of Measurement 1.8 Basic Units in the SI System 1.9 Classification of Standards 1.10 Errors in Measurement 1.10.1 Types of Errors in Measurement 1.10.2 Causes of Errors Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 2: Linear Measurement 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Linear Measurement Instruments 2.3 Comparator 2.3.1 Classification of Comparators 2.3.2 Basic Working Principle of a Comparator 2.3.3 Mechanical Comparators 2.3.4 Optical Comparator 2.3.5 Pneumatic Comparator 2.3.6 Electrical Comparator 2.3.7 Electronic Comparator 2.4 Slip Gauges 2.5 Roller Gauges 2.6 Limit Gauges 2.7 Limits, Fits and Tolerances 2.7.1 Design of Limit Gauges 2.7.2 Types of Limit Gauges Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 3: Angular Measurement 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Autocollimator 3.2.1 Principle of Autocollimation 3.2.2 Micro-Optic Autocollimator 3.3 Angle Dekkor 3.4 Angle Gauges 3.5 Alignment Telescope 3.6 Sine Bar 3.7 Sine Centre 3.7.1 Sine Table 3.7.2 Sources of Error in Sine Bar 3.8 Vernier Bevel Protractor 3.9 Vernier Clinometer 3.10 Measurement of V-Angle Using Rollers 3.11 Measurement of the Taper of a Bore Using Balls 3.12 Measurement of the External Circular Taper Using Rollers Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 4: Form Measurement 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Classification of Pitch Errors 4.3 Measurement of Thread Parameters 4.3.1 Measurement of the Major Diameter of an External Thread 4.3.2 Measurement of the Minor Diameter of an External Thread 4.3.3 Measurement of the Effective Diameter of an External Thread (Two-Wire Method) 4.3.4 Measurement of the Effective Diameter of an External Thread (Three-Wire Method) 4.3.5 Measurement of the Diameter of an Internal Thread 4.3.6 Measurement of the Pitch of a Thread 4.3.7 Measurement of Thread Parameters Using Toolmaker’s Microscope 4.4 Measurement of Gear 4.5 Profile Projector 4.6 Testing the Involute Form – David Brown Tester 4.7 Parkinson Gear Tester 4.8 Gear Tooth Vernier Calipers 4.9 Radius Measurement 4.9.1 Radius of Curvature of any Job Having a Portion of a Circle 4.9.2 Radius of Curvature of a Blunt Corner of a Job 4.9.3 Radius of a Concave Surface (Cavity) 4.9.4 Measurement of Smaller Radius of Curvature 4.10 Surface Finish 4.10.1 Elements of Surface Texture 4.10.2 Measurement of Surface Finish 4.10.3 Assessment of Surface Roughness as per Indian Standards 4.11 Straightness Measurement 4.11.1 Spirit Level Method 4.11.2 Autocollimator Method 4.11.3 Straight Edge Method 4.11.4 Method of Comparison with the Surface of a Liquid 4.11.5 Beam Comparator 4.12 Flatness Measurement 4.12.1 Direct Comparison with the Surface Plate 4.12.2 Spirit Level Method 4.12.3 Autocollimator Method 4.12.4 Beam Comparator 4.12.5 Comparison with the Surface of a Liquid 4.12.6 NPL Flatness Interferometer Method 4.12.7 Liquid Interference Method 4.13 Testing of Roundness (Circularity) 4.13.1 V Block and Dial Gauge Method 4.13.2 Polar Graph Method 4.13.3 Rotating on Centres Method 4.13.4 Roundness Testing Machines 4.13.5 Cylindricity, Concentricity and Run-out Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 5: Advances In Metrology 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Principle of Interference 5.2.1 Important Properties of Laser in Interferometry 5.3 Laser in Measurement of Small Dimensions 5.4 Laser Interferometer in Linear Measurement (Large Displacement) 5.5 Optical Flats in Laser Metrology 5.6 Precision Instruments Based on Laser 5.7 Laser Telemetric System 5.8 Angular Measurement 5.9 Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) 5.9.1 The Touch Trigger Probe (Renishaw Probe) 5.9.2 Types of CMM 5.9.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of CMM 5.10 Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) CMM 5.11 Diffraction Gratings – Measuring System 5.11.1 Applications of Moire Fringes in Measurement 5.12 Laser Scanning Micrometer 5.13 Computer-Aided Inspection 5.14 Machine Vision and Image Processing Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Section II: Engineering Measurement Chapter 6: Measurement of Force, Strain and Pressure 6.1 Measurement of Force 6.1.1 Equal Arm Balance 6.1.2 Analytical Balance 6.1.3 Unequal Arm Balance 6.1.4 Multiple Lever Systems 6.1.5 Pendulum Force Measuring Scale 6.1.6 Elastic Force Meters 6.1.7 Proving Ring 6.1.8 Hydraulic Load Cell 6.1.9 Pneumatic Load Cell 6.2 Measurement of Strain 6.2.1 Metallic Resistance Strain Gauges 6.2.2 Circuitry for Strain Gauges 6.2.3 Temperature Compensation for Strain Gauges 6.2.4 Strain Gauge Rosettes 6.3 Measurement of Pressure 6.3.1 Static and Dynamic Pressure 6.3.2 Methods of Pressure Measurement 6.3.3 Manometers 6.3.4 Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge 6.3.5 Bellows Pressure Gauge 6.3.6 Diaphragm Pressure Gauge 6.3.7 Low-Pressure Measurement 6.3.8 Thermal Conductivity Gauges 6.3.9 Ionisation Gauges 6.3.10 Knudsen Gauge 6.3.11 Pressure Cells Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 7: Measurement of Torque and Power 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Mechanical Torsion Meter 7.3 Optical Torsion Meter 7.4 Electrical Torsion Meter 7.5 Strain Gauge Torsion Meter 7.6 Dynamometer – Hydraulic 7.7 Dynamometer – Mechanical 7.8 Dynamometer – Electrical 7.9 Transmission Dynamometer Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 8: Measurement of Level, Vibration and Translation 8.1 Measurement of Level 8.2 Direct Methods 8.2.1 Hook Level Indicator 8.2.2 Sight Glass (Gauge Glass) Indicator 8.2.3 Float-Operated Level Indicator 8.3 Indirect Methods 8.3.1 Capacitive Liquid Level Sensor 8.3.2 Ultrasonic Fuel Level Meter 8.3.3 Magnetic Level Indicator 8.3.4 Cryogenic Fuel Level Indicator 8.3.5 Bubbler (Purge) Level Indicator 8.4 Measurement of Vibration 8.4.1 Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) 8.4.2 Seismic Instruments (Vibrometers and Accelerometers) 8.5 Sound (Decibal) Meters 8.6 Measurement of Displacement 8.6.1 Linear Variable Differential Transformer 8.6.2 Resistance Potentiometer 8.7 Measurement of Speed 8.7.1 Mechanical Tachometer 8.7.2 Electrical Tachometer 8.7.3 DC Tachometer 8.7.4 AC Tachometer 8.7.5 Stroboscope 8.7.6 Pick-Up Tachometer 8.8 Measurement of the Speed of a Moving Object Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 9: Measurement of Fluid Flow 9.1 Measurement of Flow 9.2 Obstruction Meters 9.2.1 Venturimeter 9.2.2 Orifice Meter 9.2.3 Flow Nozzle 9.2.4 Rotameter 9.3 Coriolis Flow Meter 9.4 Turbine Flow Meter 9.5 Electromagnetic Flow Meter 9.6 Ultrasonic Flow Meter 9.7 Pitot Static Tube 9.8 Hot-Wire Anemometer 9.9 Laser Doppler Anemometer 9.10 Flow Visualisation Methods 9.10.1 Dye Injection 9.10.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence 9.10.3 Smoke Wire Visualisation 9.10.4 Hydrogen Bubble Visualisation 9.10.5 Shadowgraph and Schlieren Technique Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Chapter 10: Measurement of Temperature 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Basics of Temperature 10.3 Temperature Scales 10.4 Methods of Temperature Measurement 10.5 Principles of Temperature Measurement 10.5.1 Expansion 10.5.2 Change of State 10.5.3 Electrical Method 10.6 Temperature Ranges 10.7 Thermocouples 10.8 Thermistors 10.9 Pressure Thermometers 10.10 Resistance Thermometers 10.11 Pyrometers 10.11.1 Total Radiation Pyrometers 10.11.2 Infrared Pyrometers 10.11.3 Optical Pyrometers Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Section III: Quality Control Chapter 11: Statistical Quality Control 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Quality Control and Quality Assurance 11.3 Causes of Variation 11.4 Control Chart and its Selection 11.5 Process Capability 11.6 Sampling Plans 11.6.1 Classification of Sampling Plans 11.7 OC Curve and AOQ Curve 11.8 Solved Problems Summary Exercises Multiple Choice Questions Review Questions Appendix 1 Table of Constants for Control Charts for Variables Appendix 2 Table of Standard Normal Probabilities Index. PRINTED PAGES: 416.

Title: Engineering Metrology and Measurement

Author Name: K Duraivelu and S Karthikeyan

Categories: India, Engineering,

Edition: First Edition

Publisher: New Delhi, Orient BlackSwan Pvt. Ltd: 2018

ISBN: 9789386235527

Binding: Softcover

Book Condition: New

Seller ID: 900492

Keywords: Engineering Metrology and Measurement K Duraivelu and S Karthikeyan