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Medieval philosophy, the subject of this volume, is a distinct tradition within the history of Western philosophy. Its four subtraditions are 'Arab' philosophy which took place in Islamic lands and was written usually in Arabic, though sometimes in Persian; 'Jewish' philosophy the work of Jews in Islamic and Christian countries, written in Arabic or Hebrew; 'Latin' philosophy produced in the countries of Christian Europe where Latin was the main language of higher learning and usually, though not always, written in Latin; and (of rather less importance) 'Byzantine' philosophy written in Greek in the Christian empire of Byzantium. Medieval Arab philosophy begins with the first philosophical writings in Arabic in the ninth century; it ends, as a tradition of importance, with the death of Ibn Rushd in 1198, after which growing religious intolerance scarcely permitted the practice of philosophy as it had been known. The historian of philosophy can only follow where the paleographer has led the way. This volume provides a broad and scholarly introduction to the issues involved in the philosophical discourse of the medieval era, as well as some original interpretations of the philosophical writings addressed. This volume will be an important resource for scholars and students of medieval philosophy, history, theology and literature. Printed Pages: 272.